Operator Precedence

Operators
November 13, 2018
Assignment Operators
November 13, 2018

Operator Precedence

The precedence of an operator specifies how “tightly” it binds two expressions together. For example, in the expression 1 + 5 * 3, the answer is 16 and not 18 because the multiplication (“*”) operator has a higher precedence than the addition (“+”) operator. Parentheses may be used to force precedence, if necessary. For instance: (1 + 5) * 3 evaluates to 18.

When operators have equal precedence their associativity decides how the operators are grouped. For example “-” is left-associative, so 1 – 2 – 3 is grouped as (1 – 2) – 3 and evaluates to -4. “=” on the other hand is right-associative, so $a = $b = $c is grouped as $a = ($b = $c).

Operators of equal precedence that are non-associative cannot be used next to each other, for example 1 < 2 > 1 is illegal in PHP. The expression 1 <= 1 == 1 on the other hand is legal, because the == operator has lesser precedence than the <= operator.

Use of parentheses, even when not strictly necessary, can often increase readability of the code by making grouping explicit rather than relying on the implicit operator precedence and associativity.

The following table lists the operators in order of precedence, with the highest-precedence ones at the top. Operators on the same line have equal precedence, in which case associativity decides grouping.

Operator Precedence
Associativity Operators Additional Information
non-associative clone new clone and new
left [ array()
right ** arithmetic
non-associative instanceof types
right ! logical
left * / % arithmetic
left +  . arithmetic and string
left << >> bitwise
non-associative < <= > >= comparison
non-associative == != === !== <> <=> comparison
left & bitwise and references
left ^ bitwise
left | bitwise
left && logical
left || logical
right ?? comparison
left ? : ternary
right = += -= *= **= /= .= %= &= |= ^= <<= >>= assignment
left and logical
left xor logical
left or logical
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